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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-16

Correlating causative factors in cleft lip and palate patients: An epidemiological study

Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, AMC Dental College and Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bhagyashree B Desai
Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, AMC Dental College and Hospital, Bhalakia Mill Compound, Opp Anupam Cinema, Khokhara, Ahmedabad - 380 008, Gujarat
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jclpca.jclpca_12_18

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Aims: The primary aim of this study was to correlate the incidence of cleft lip and palate (CLP) with possible etiological factors such as consanguinity, history of abortions or miscarriages, type of delivery, oral destructive habits, and family history. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was completed using a standardized questionnaire which was prepared to investigate the information of 166 patients referred to/undergoing orthodontic rehabilitation treatment of CLP at the hospital. The variables assessed were consanguinity, affected members in family and relatives, gestational history, past abortions and/or miscarriages, medications taken by mother during pregnancy, and parental habits of tobacco chewing and/or smoking. Statistical Analysis Used: Correlation of the above-mentioned variables as well as any mutual effects of gender and cleft type was assessed statistically by Pearson's Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: The results of the present study provide demographic details of cleft patients in Gujarat, which show that cleft deformity is seen more in male patients (n = 98; 59%). Unilateral CL and palate of left side (CL + PUL) occurs most frequently (n = 62; 37.3%) both in male (n = 40; 40.8%) and female (n = 22; 32.4%) patients. Occurrence of CL + PUL is followed by bilateral CL and palate (CL + PB) (n = 45; 27.1%) and unilateral CL and palate of right side (n = 27; 16.3%). The oral destructive habits of parents (n = 82; 49.4%), past abortions and miscarriage (n = 47; 28.3%), family history (n = 26; 15.7%), and consanguinity (n = 24; 14.5%) could be correlated with the occurrence of CLP. Conclusion: This can serve as a guide for future reference to health workers so that they can take measures to create awareness among the people to avoid consanguineous marriages, use of tobacco, abortions, and create awareness about a family history. The outcome could also help government/public health sector workers to develop strategies for awareness, identification, and treatment of cleft deformities.

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