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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 152-159

Oral health status among cleft lip and palate patients in South India: A profile

1 Department of Oral Biology and Genomic Studies, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Karnataka, India
2 Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Craniofacial Surgery, Nitte University, Mangalore, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Shahnawaz Khijmatgar
Department of Oral Biology and Genomic Studies, A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Nitte University, Deralakatte, Mangalore - 575 018, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jclpca.jclpca_43_17

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Background: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is one of the identified anomalies in India. Many of the CLP cases have compromised oral health status which relates to their quality of life (QoL). Therefore, it is a need to assess their oral health status in terms of dental caries, periodontal disease, hypodontia, malocclusions, etc. Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the oral health status among CLP cases. Material and Methods: A questionnaire survey was designed for a total of 300 CLP cases that came to the Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Craniofacial Surgery of Nitte University, India, were included in the study. A questionnaire was designed and pretested, and informed consent from the cases and carers was taken. Results: The average mean age of the patients with CLP was 17.48 (3–47). There were 47% males (n = 141) and 53% females (n = 159). 63% (n = 170) of them came from low socioeconomic background. Out of 300 cases, 31.0% (n = 90) had cleft lip; 1.0% (n = 3) had cleft palate, and 67.8% (n = 196) of them had both CLP. Most of the cases, i.e., 65.4% (n = 196) were unilateral CLP and 52.7% (n = 158) had right-sided clefts. The literacy status of the parents, their socioeconomic status, and occupation had a significant interrelation for the occurrence of CLP (P < 0.05). Similarly, diminutive or peg-shaped tooth, hypodontia, facial profile, and absence of lateral incisors in the line of cleft showed a significant association of this CLP condition. There was also strong interrelation between the presence of postoperative intraoral scarring in patients affected with the CLP (P < 0.05). The score for decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT/dmft) was 5.16 for 6–12 years old and >9 in >13 years old, community periodontal index was between 0 and 2, and the simplified oral hygiene index was 0.9–1.41. There were cases of AQ3 hypodontia, hypomineralization, and malocclusion. The statistical test was performed using ANOVA. Conclusion: We conclude that, there was a moderate dental caries risk. The periodontal status was fair. There was association of occurrence of hypodontia and malocclusions in craniofacial anomalies. This affects their QoL.

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