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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 126-131

Epidemiologic indices of cleft lip and palate as seen among Igbos in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria

Department of Surgery, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Park Lane; Department of Plastic Surgery, National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Chukwunonso Azubuike Jac-Okereke
Department of Surgery, Enugu State University of Science and Teaching Hospital, Parklane, Enugu 400001
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jclpca.jclpca_54_17

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Objectives: The objective of the study was to provide more recent local data, and an estimate of the incidence of cleft lip and/or palate among Igbos. Design: The study design was a descriptive transversal study of birth records and case notes between January 2007 and December 2011 and records of clinical attendance and interviews with patients' mothers. Names and state of origin were used as inclusion criteria for Igbos. Setting: Previous local data on epidemiology are over three decades old. The National Orthopaedic Hospital, Enugu (NOHE) is an apex center for plastic surgery in southeastern Nigeria. Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital (ESUTTH) is the largest state-owned health facility. There are ethnoracial variations in the epidemiology of clefts. Materials and Methods: All patients born with clefts at ESUTTH and all records of clefts in the period available at NOHE hospital in the period. Within the period, 262 cleft patients were studied: 139 males and 123 females; male:female 1.13:1. Main Outcome Measure: Main outcome measures were the live birth incidence of clefts, the most frequently occurring birth order, and socioeconomic class affected. Results: There were 5810 live births with a 0.00103270223752151 birth incidence. That among Igbos was 0.0010700909577314. Infants in the first birth order and of low socioeconomic class accounted for the highest incidence. The socioeconomic status was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.0001, confidence interval: 95%) but birth order was not (P = 0.932). There was a positive family history in 9.5% with first-degree relatives accounting for 6%. The mean maternal age was 28.88 years (range: 17–47 years), and mean paternal age was 38.55 years (range: 23–58 years). Conclusion: The epidemiologic indices differ from data published over three decades ago. There are differences in cleft epidemiology within Nigeria.

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