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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 4  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 3-8

The relationship between orofacial clefts and consanguineous marriages: A hospital register-based study in Dharwad, South India

1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Unit of Epidemiology and Global Health, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden

Correspondence Address:
B R Rajeev
Department of Public Health Dentistry, SDM College of Dental Sciences and Hospital, Dharwad - 580 009, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2348-2125.205410

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Context: Orofacial cleft (OFC) is one of the common craniofacial malformations. The etiology of these OFCs is multifactorial. One of the etiological factors is consanguinity (marriage between blood relatives). There is a lack of literature reporting the number of people affected with OFCs due to consanguinity. Aims: The aim of this study is to report the occurrence of OFC and associated factors in relation to consanguinity from a craniofacial hospital specializing in OFCs, head and neck cancer, and trauma management in South India. Setting and Design: This was a hospital-based study, retrospective case record analysis. Methodology: One thousand two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients' secondary data records with cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP) and cleft lip and palate (CL/P) were collected from January 2007 to July 2009. Statistics: Frequency of consanguinity in relation to OFC was analyzed using Chi-square test according to the nature of clefts and selected demographic features such as sex, region, and religion. Results: A total of 47.2% patients' parents had consanguineous marriage. Consanguinity was seen in 60.2% of male and 39.7% of female patients. CL/P was noticed in 40.9%, followed by CL (36.7%) and CP (22.2%). Males predominated in all types of clefts proportionally with the study population as compared to females. Statistically, significant association (P = 0.04) was seen with consanguinity and CP. Conclusion: Nearly half of the study population had a positive history of consanguinity. Statistically, a significant association was seen between CP and consanguinity. CL/P cases were the most common type identified, followed by CL and CP. Males predominated in all types of clefts. The prevalence of OFC is high, and there is a potential of congenital disabilities from consanguinity. These findings indicate a clear and urgent need for setting up a National Registry of Congenital Anomalies along with craniofacial defects, to monitor these trends and the corresponding need for supportive services.

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