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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 23-31

Prevalent risk factors for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in a South-Western Nigerian population

1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
2 Department of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Perinatology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
3 Department of Anaesthesia, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
4 Plastic Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Oginni Fadekemi Olufunmilayo
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife 220005, Osun State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2348-2125.176001

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Objective: Various risk factors (RFs) have been associated with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) in many populations, but none has been identified in a South-Western Nigerian population. We sought to identify the prevailing RFs for nonsyndromic CL/P in the South-Western Nigerian population. Study Design: We conducted a case-control study at Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital (OAUTH) Ile-Ife. Patients with nonsyndromic CL/P presenting at the OAUTH and randomly selected infants conceived and delivered in the same zone as the patients were studied. We elicited information on RFs for CL/P around subjects' conceptions. Results: 157 patients aged 1 day to 4 months and 157 controls were reviewed. A female preponderance was observed (F:M= 1.24:1). Chi-square tests reveal that mother's age, gravidity at the birth of index child, pregnancy illnesses, child's birth rank, maternal medication use in the first trimester (FT), the absence of antenatal care (ANC), positive family history; and parent's occupational exposure differed significantly between these groups. A logistic regression revealed increased odds of having a child with CL/P with paternal age ≥40 years, maternal age ≤20 years, pregnancy illness, febrile illness in FT, attempted abortion, and birth rank ≥4 th . Furthermore, primigravid status at birth of index child, the absence of ANC, history of neonatal death, medication use in the FT, as well as parent's occupation demonstrated varying increased odds that attained statistical significance. Conclusion: Multiple interrelated factors may be implicated in the etiology of CL/P in the studied population. We advocate prompt health education and public enlightenment directed at addressing and eliminating these RFs.

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